Users experiencing the system have a cap of electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes placed upon their head. These electrodes are then connected to a pocket PC that records the EEG data or brain waves in real-time. Sat in front of the PC screen, users imagine moving the cursor to the left and then to the right, without actually moving their hands.
The whole procedure is repeated 20 times for each different movement while the PC records the volunteer's brain wave data throughout. With the Presencia software trained to recognise the volunteer's brain wave patterns, activation of a control signal then allows the user to move the on-screen cursor either to the left or to the right, simply by imagining the movement.
Explaining that the computer can be trained in the same way for foot movements and up/down control of the cursor, Christoph Guger of Austria's Guger Technologies stresses that such training is not difficult. "We estimate that about six percent of people, on average, can learn to control such simple cursor movements within around thirty minutes, with an accuracy of around ninety percent. Almost everyone could train themselves to do it within a day."
Presencia project participants are developing the technology to navigate "caves", or virtual environments. Here virtual reality (VR) gloves and the brain/computer interface enable participants to move around within an environment and interact with others present. However, the technology also has obvious potential for patient rehabilitation applications. Here the brain/computer interface could be used to control prosthetic limbs or drive a wheelchair.
Christoph Guger admits that in its present form the technology is experimental. In theory, the interface could be developed to help patients suffering from the neuro-muscular disease Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) for example, helping them to write complete sentences. However, the present rate of production of one minute per character will need much more development before reaching commercial reality.
Yet he believes that such direct brain control of our surrounding is only a matter of time. "In 1999, there were just twenty-one labs in the world working on this area. Now there are over one hundred." As he stated: "Thirty years ago, pacemaker implants into the human heart were unusual, now we take them for granted."
For more information you can contact Dr. Christoph Guger at Guger Technologies OEG, Herbersteinstraße 60, A-8020 Graz, Austria, Tel.: +43-316-67510612, Fax: +43-316-67510639, Mobile: +43-676-9330673 or visit the Presencia project Web site. This article was reprinted from the IST Results Web site.