The surgeons looked at 27 patients undergoing unicompartmental knee replacement. The patients were separated into two groups as part of a randomised controlled trial, with 14 having conventional surgery, and the remaining 13 having robot assisted surgery.
Although the operations took a few minutes longer using the robotic assistant, the replacement knee parts were more accurately lined up than in conventional surgery. All of the robotically assisted operations lined up the bones to within two degrees of the planned position, but only 40 percent of the conventionally performed cases achieved this level of accuracy. The team found there were no additional side effects from using robot assisted surgery, and recovery from surgery was quicker in most cases.
Professor Justin Cobb, from Imperial College London, who led the research team, stated: "These robots are designed to hold the surgeon's hand in the operating theatre, not take over the operation. This study shows they can be an enormous help, preventing surgeons from making mistakes. More importantly, by showing how the increased accuracy makes a difference to how well a knee works after surgery, we will be able to develop a new generation of less invasive procedures without the risks of error, providing faster recovery and better functional outcomes for patients."
The study involved both surgeons and engineers from Imperial College, with medical robotics engineers designing the Acrobot prototype, and surgeons testing it. Professor Cobb added: "This study could have important implications for not just surgery, but also for health economics. By improving the accuracy of surgery, and ultimately improving the outcome for patients, we can make sure the knee replacements work better and last longer, preventing the need for additional surgery."
The study was funded by the Acrobot Co. Ltd., a spin out of Imperial College London. Consistently rated in the top three United Kingdom university institutions, Imperial College London is a world leading science-based university whose reputation for excellence in teaching and research attracts students (11.000) and staff (6000) of the highest international quality. Innovative research at the College explores the interface between science, medicine, engineering and management and delivers practical solutions that enhance the quality of life and the environment, underpinned by a dynamic enterprise culture.
The study is titled: "Hands on robotic unicompartmental knee replacement: A prospective randomised controlled clinical investigation of the Acrobot system", and appeared in the February 2006 Issue of the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery.