Howard Wang, vice president and chief scientific officer of NanoMas, founded the company in January with fellow researchers Zhihao Yang, president and chief technology officer, and Tom Xu, vice president and chief operating officer. The NanoMas team has developed efficient, cost-effective processes for manufacturing electronic inks made of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles suspended in liquid.
The inks serve as conductors and semiconductors. Printing them onto thin, flexible substrate, manufacturers can mass-produce circuitry much as a printing press cranks out newspaper sheets. Along with paper-thin video screens and clothing that heats and cools as needed, these light, flexible electronics could form the basis for environmental sensors. They could also enable a new, less-expensive generation of radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, which manufacturers will embed in product packaging to help retailers manage inventory.
Today, though, manufacturers that are developing machines to print electronic circuitry in high volume are getting ready to bring their products to market, probably by 2008. Once they do, demand for electronic inks will surge. Although many researchers are working on electronic inks, NanoMas's nanoparticles are ideally suited to that application, according to Howard Wang. "For performance, smaller is definitely better, but smaller also means more unstable - difficult to make as well as difficult to use." NanoMas has struck a balance between small and stable.
The researchers have also figured out how to control manufacturing costs so they can price their products attractively. "We invented an approach that is similar to making fertilizer or plastics, a large-scale wet chemistry approach, which can be scaled up", Howard Wang stated.
In C.J. Zhong's case, a $100.000 Phase I Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) feasibility study grant from the United States Air Force to develop air quality sensors for aircraft cockpits plus an invitation to apply for a $750.000 Phase II SBIR grant to turn the prototype sensors into products, provided the spark for his company, NSC Technology.
C.J. Zhong and post-doctoral senior research associate Jin Luo, who serves as the company's CEO, founded NSC Technology in late 2005. NSC Technology takes advantage of the fact that nanomaterials react more sensitively to the presence of chemicals than the same materials at larger scale. C.J. Zhong's lab has created chips containing nanoparticles of different metals and metal oxides, each of which emits an electronic signal when it comes in contact with a specific chemical.
Most sensors on the market today are designed to detect only one chemical at a time, according to C.J. Zhong. But since people may need to monitor numerous substances in the air, these sensors aren't as useful as they might be. "We believe we can design sensors that simultaneously target multiple chemicals", he stated.
C.J. Zhong is collaborating with colleague Susan Lu, assistant professor of systems science and industrial engineering, to package the chips in handheld devices with software to interpret the electronic signals, alerting the user to the presence of the target chemicals. A similar approach could produce a sensor that checks the breath of a diabetic person for acetone, a biomarker that indicates the level of glucose in the blood, according to C.J. Zhong.
NSC Technology is also working with metals and alloys on the nanoscale to develop more durable, less expensive catalysts for use in fuel cells. The market potential for both the sensors and the catalysts is strong, according to C.J. Zhong. "People are concerned about the air they breathe. People worry about their future energy sources. I think we're in the right business."
NSC Technology has been contacted by a number of investors and discussions are underway to partner with economic development groups and service providers who have a vested interest in the entrepreneurial climate of Upstate New York.
Both NanoMas and NSC Technology are located in the University's Start-Up Suite in the Innovative Technologies Complex (ITC). Offering fledgling companies low-cost office space, the Start-Up Suite also features a state-of-the-art conference room, access to high-speed printers, copiers and other business equipment and a receptionist. Companies that occupy the suite must have their roots in technology developed at the University and work in areas directly related to the life sciences. While Howard Wang and C.J. Zhong are the first pioneers to occupy the Start-up Suite, the possibility of moving into a well-appointed office environment, rather than searching for quality space off campus, is encouraging more faculty to enter the commercial world, according to Eugene Krentsel, the University's director of technology transfer and innovative partnerships.
When faculty researchers decide to explore the commercial world, "we're here to provide the services and facilities and advice they need to do that", Eugene Krentsel stated. Available services include help finding potential investors, dealing with intellectual property issues and scouting for space in the community when the time comes to expand. With several other applications pending, the Start-up Suite is likely to fill in a couple of years, according to Eugene Krentsel. "That's much faster than anybody anticipated when we were designing this facility. University faculty have been developing companies in the last year at a greatly accelerated rate."