Bill Gates, the PC pioneer, says robots are the future. The robotics industry is developing in much the same way that the computer business did 30 years ago, he once opined in Scientific American.
One area particularly ripe for robotics is health care, according to Arjan Rensma of the Dutch innovation agency TNO, which he said could be worth anywhere from 40 billion euro upwards depending on which study you read.
And the reason for all this excitement? It's simple economics: robot helpers promise sustainable and affordable health provision without compromising on the quality of care. The attraction for authorities trying to plan for increasingly ageing societies is palpable.
"Existing technologies like the surgical robot called Da Vinci show that it can be done", stated Arjan Rensma. But Europe needs a clear road map to transform the current R&D effort - described by experts as still in its infancy - into a leading robotics for health care (R4H) movement, he suggested.
The R4H field is very much alive in Europe, according to the WTEC technology report, with sufficient critical mass to take it forward, but there is a disconnect between R&D prototypes and commercial roll-out.
"One of the biggest barriers in the commercialisation of robotics for care is the way health care systems are currently funded", noted Arjan Rensma. This is a serious and complex challenge, he said, and more effort is needed to overcome it.
It is not a question of throwing more money at just any robotics application, he suggested. "More user involvement is needed to develop the 'right' robotic applications ... starting with relatively 'easy' applications while keeping an eye on the complex ones in the future." This is where the R4H road map comes in.
Arjan Rensma led a group of research organisations, including Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft (DE), VTT technical research (FI), Vilans (NL) and EuroAct Japan, which took up the challenge to map the way forward for European robotics in the medical and health field.
Extensive consultation revealed 21 main innovation areas showing commercial potential. These were then whittled down by the study group to six key areas "ripe for further investigation and road mapping".
The group predicted growth in smart medical capsules which can "journey" through the body unobtrusively to administer medicines, gather data or perform surgical procedures. Another area of interest is precise "robotised" surgery to perform, for instance, less invasive, automated procedures in inaccessible parts of the body.
Intelligent "natural limb" prosthetics controlled by the mind also have huge potential, according to Arjan Rensma's group. As, too, does using robots to help stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation and others with compromised motor co-ordination.
Robots, perhaps linked to game playing platforms, can also be developed to further help with mental, cognitive and social therapy. A final priority area could be robotised patient monitoring systems, especially useful for homecare and elderly care in countries with ageing populations and overburdened health care systems.
The results of the R4H study were presented at two major conferences in June - the Dutch Robotics Conference and the International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR) in Japan. More presentations will follow at events this autumn, reported Arjan Rensma.
To be sure that Europe is ready to meet its future health challenges, policy-makers are keenly aware of the need to lay the R&D groundwork today and in the coming years. While significant scientific progress has been made in both robotics and health care, more needs to be done to meld the two.
Arjan Rensma's study notes several clear trends in R4H over the coming decade or so:
- A revolution in surgery by all kinds of robotic systems
- Developments in diagnostics, through the evolution of more intelligent and multi-functional endoscopic capsules
- Greater autonomy and independence for people with illnesses and disabilities at home through the introduction of domestic robots - first for monitoring, later for support tasks
- Robotic systems in nursing care to support the arduous work of the individual professional and to counteract the imminent staff shortages