Engineers and physicians are increasingly looking to wireless technologies and innovative circuit designs to develop sensors that cut health care costs through better preventative care and shorter hospital stays. Wireless sensors also offer patients more freedom than wired sensors hooked to machines. The UC San Diego wireless sensor project could lead to unobtrusive heart sensors for long term cardiac health monitoring that do not touch the skin and do not tether patients to machines.
The sensors record "biopotentials" - tiny voltage signals that appear on the skin surface. Biopotentials emanate from electrically active cells, such as neurons and cardiac cells, and propagate through the conductive media of the human body.
At the final phase of the 2009-2010 UC San Diego Entrepreneur Challenge, on June 2, Yu Mike Chi gave a 12 minute presentation of the Cognionics business plan to the panel of judges, followed by an 8 minute question-answer period. When the Q&A finished with a few minutes to spare, Yu Mike Chi quickly set up a live demo. Pressing the sensor into his chest, over his clothes, the electrical activity of his heart appeared on the giant presentation screen.
Yu Mike Chi is also working on wireless sensors that record brain activity, though these sensors are not part of the winning business plan. Yu Mike Chi is developing these technologies under the guidance of professor Gert Cauwenberghs from the Department of Bio-engineering at the UC San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering. Gert Cauwenberghs is also Co-Director of the UCSD Institute for Neural Computation.
The new sensors that Cognionics is developing are "wireless" in two different respects. First, the sensors record biopotential through clothing fabrics, and therefore do not touch the skin directly. "Today you have to put sticky patches on your chest to record this information. It's uncomfortable and messy", stated Yu Mike Chi. Second, the information the sensors collect is sent to computers over wireless channels, rather than over wires.
"One of the goals of this wireless sensor project is to take the sensing technology out of the typical hospital setting and into the home environment, without constraining the mobility of the patient", stated Gert Cauwenberghs. "Also, our approach could allow you to monitor cardiac or brain activity during exercise, or to monitor the health of soldiers in the battlefield, so it can be transformative in that sense."
Various wireless sensor prototypes for recording biopotential have been around since at least the 1960s, but according to Yu Mike Chi, "no one has gotten it past a lab prototype - you don't see them out in the marketplace."
Yu Mike Chi cited problems with cost, reliability, and difficulty recording clinically relevant electrical signals as causes of the roadblocks, particularly because wireless sensors are more complex than the wired versions. "We managed to reduce the circuitry for the sensor into a single integrated circuit that makes it more reliable and cheaper than other methods. We have two lab prototypes that are working", stated Yu Mike Chi.
"There are other companies that are doing wireless sensors, but Mike's solution offers one that eliminates not only the wires for transmitting the data, but also the wires between electrodes that are conventionally needed to establish a voltage signal with a reference and ground", explained Gert Cauwenberghs.
Yu Mike Chi said he is dedicated to launching this company in San Diego after he finishes his PhD. "I want to stay in San Diego. Wireless health is starting to become a big thing in San Diego", stated Yu Mike Chi.
Cognionics is an early stage start-up project, whose members include:
- Yu Mike Chi: PhD student, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, UCSD Jacobs School of Engineering
- Yuchen Cao: PhD student, Department of Chemistry, UC San Diego
- Mehmet Parlak: PhD student, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, UCSD Jacobs School of Engineering
- Ping Wang: PhD student, Salk Institute
- Stephen Chen: PhD Student, The Scripps Research Institute